Li felt a bit uncomfortable about Shandong's double team early in the match, but soon get used to that, making two baskets and feeding Chen's two layups, to help Inner Mongolia race ahead 19-15 in the first quarter.
The previous best for the No.7 seed in Paris was the semifinals in 2012 when she lost to eventual champion Maria Sharapova 6-3, 6-3.
Dongguan established a 22-12 advantage after the first quarter, with Dilana scoring 10 points to lead the way.
Rodriguez and Falcao were among 18 Europe-based players included in the 24-man squad announced by the Colombian Football Federation on Friday.
The game started with Inner Mongolia taking a 24-10 lead in the first quarter. Hebei tried to fight back in the second period, only to see Inner Mongolia pull away with a 34-14 third quarter.
Despite the return of the veteran duo, Colombia's squad also features a number of fresh faces, including uncapped Hertha Berlin striker John Cordoba and America de Cali goalkeeper Eder Chaux.
The two-time Grand Slam winner committed just seven unforced errors throughout the one-sided encounter and broke her opponent's serve six times.
Dilana took center stage early on by scoring seven points in a row, while Yang Shuyu provided much-needed help beyond the arc. The duo combined for 17 points in the first quarter to propel Dongguan to a 22-13 advantage.
Stefanos Tsitsipas made history for his country on Monday as the No.5 seed became the first Greek player in history to reach French Open last eight, after seeing off Grigor Dimitrov 6-3, 7-6 (9), 6-2 in a 2:26 victory.
Following is the Colombia squad:
After the break, Union continued on the front foot and got their reward in the 49th minute when Marcus Ingvartsen had all the time and space at the edge of the box to slot home past Zentner into the far corner.